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AND KOSHER AUSTRALIA:
AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY
AUSTRALIA NEW SOUTH WALES
AUSTRALIA NORTHERN TERRITORY
Sydney Harbour Bridge from
Circular Quay, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Jan 30, 2010. Author:
NEW SOUTH WALES:
Slogan or nickname:
First State, Premier State
Recens Quam Pura Nites"
(Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine)
||New South Welshmen
Barry O'Farrell (LP)
| - Established as Colony
||26 January 1788
| - Responsible Government
| - Became State
||1 January 1901
||3 March 1986
| - Total
||809,444 km2 (5th)
312,528 sq mi
| - Land
309,130 sq mi
| - Water
||8,802 km2 (1.09%)
3,398 sq mi
|Population (End of June
| - Population
| - Density
23.6 /sq mi
| - Highest
2,228 m (7,310 ft)
|Gross State Product
| - Product ($m)
| - Product per capita
(Lord Howe Island)
(Lord Howe Island)
| - Postal
| - Fish
New South Wales (abbreviated as
NSW) is a
Australia, located in the east of the country. It is
South Australia to the north, south and west
respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the
Tasman Sea, which forms part of the
Pacific Ocean. New South Wales encompasses the whole of
Australian Capital Territory. The state capital is
Sydney, which is also the state's most populous city. As
of June 2010 ,
the estimated population was 7,238,819, which was 34.5% of
the population of Australia, making it Australia's most
populous state. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred
to as New South Welshmen.
The colony of New South Wales was founded
in 1788 and originally comprised much of the Australian
mainland, as well as
Van Diemen's Land,
Lord Howe Island and
Norfolk Island, in addition to the area currently
referred to as the state of New South Wales, which was
formed during Federation in 1901.
New Zealand briefly became a part of New South Wales
when it was annexed by Britain in 1840.
During the 19th century, large areas were
successively separated to form the
British colonies of
Tasmania (established as a separate colony named Van
Diemen's Land in 1825), South Australia (1836), Victoria
(1851) and Queensland (1859).
Aborigines (indigenous people)
The original inhabitants of
the area were
Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia
approximately forty to sixty thousand years ago.
discovery of New South Wales was made by
Captain James Cook during his voyage along
the east coast of Australia in 1770. In the
journal covering his survey of the eastern coast
of the Australian continent, Cook first named
the east coast of Australia "New Wales", which
he later corrected in his journal to "New South
The first British
settlement was made by what is known in
Australian history as the
First Fleet; this was led by Captain
Arthur Phillip, who assumed the role of
governor of the settlement on arrival in 1788,
After years of
chaos, anarchy and the
overthrow of Governor
William Bligh, a new governor,
Lieutenant-Colonel (later Major-General)
Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to
reform the settlement in 1809. During his time
as governor, Macquarie commissioned the
construction of roads, wharves, churches and
public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney
and employed a planner to design the street
layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still
During the 19th
century, large areas were successively separated
to form the British colonies of Tasmania
(proclaimed as separate colony named Van
Diemen's Land in 1825), South Australia (1836),
New Zealand (1841), Victoria (1851) and
Responsible government was granted to the
New South Wales colony in 1855.
Charles Darwin visited Australia in January
1836 and in “The
Voyage of the Beagle” (chapter 19 of the
11th edition) records his hesitations about and
fascination with New South Wales, including his
speculations about the geological origin and
formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal
population, the situation of the convicts, and
the future prospects of the country.
1901 Federation of Australia
At the end of the
19th century, the movement toward
federation between the Australian colonies
gathered momentum. Conventions and forums
involving colony leaders were held on a regular
basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free
trade state were in dispute with the other
leading colony Victoria, which had a
protectionist economy. At this time customs
posts were common on borders, even on the
NSW to Victoria in those days would have been
very similar to travelling from NSW to New
Zealand today. Supporters of federation included
the NSW premier
Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889
Tenterfield Speech (given in
Tenterfield) was pivotal in gathering
support for NSW involvement.
Edmund Barton, later to become Australia's
first Prime Minister, was another strong
advocate for federation and a meeting held in
Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial
In 1898 popular
referendums on the proposed federation were held
in NSW, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania.
All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but
the NSW government under Premier
George Reid (popularly known as "yes–no
Reid" because of his constant changes of opinion
on the issue) had set a requirement for a higher
"yes" vote than just a simple majority which was
In 1899 further
referendums were held in the same states as well
as Queensland (but not Western Australia). All
resulted in yes votes with majorities increased
from the previous year. NSW met the conditions
its government had set for a yes vote. As a
compromise to the question on where the capital
was to be located, an agreement was made that
the site was to be within NSW but not closer
than 100 miles (161 km) from Sydney, while the
provisional capital would be Melbourne.
Eventually the area that now forms the
Australian Capital Territory was ceded by
Canberra was selected.
Early 20th century
In the years
after World War I, the high prices enjoyed
during the war fell with the resumption of
international trade, and farmers became
increasingly discontented with the fixed prices
paid by the compulsory marketing authorities set
up as a wartime measure by the
Hughes government. In 1919 the farmers
Country Party, led at national level by
Earle Page, a doctor from
Grafton, and at state level by
Michael Bruxner, a small farmer from
Great Depression which began in 1929 ushered
a period of political and class conflict in New
South Wales. The mass unemployment and collapse
of commodity prices brought ruin to both city
workers and to farmers. The beneficiary of the
resultant discontent was not the
Communist Party, which remained small and
Labor populism. Lang's second government was
elected in November 1930 on a policy of
repudiating New South Wales' debt to British
bondholders and using the money instead to help
the unemployed through public works. This was
denounced as illegal by conservatives, and also
James Scullin's federal Labor government.
The result was that Lang's supporters in the
federal Caucus brought down Scullin's
government, causing a second bitter split in the
Labor Party. In May 1932 the Governor, Sir
Philip Game dismissed his government. The
subsequent election was won by the conservative
By the outbreak of World War
II in 1939, the differences between New South
Wales and the other states that had emerged in
the 19th century had faded as a result of
federation and economic development behind a
wall of protective tariffs.New South Wales
continued to outstrip Victoria as the centre of
industry, and increasingly of finance and trade
as well.Labor returned to office under the
moderate leadership of
William McKell in 1941 and stayed in power
for 24 years. World War II saw another surge in
industrial development to meet the needs of a
war economy, and also the elimination of
Labor stayed in power until
1965. Towards the end of its term in power it
announced a plan for the construction of an
opera/arts facility on
Bennelong Point. The design competition was
Jørn Utzon. Controversy over the cost of
what would eventually become the
Sydney Opera House became a political issue
and was a factor in the eventual defeat of Labor
in 1965 by the conservative
Liberal Party led by
Sir Robert Askin. Sir Robert remains a
controversial figure with supporters claiming
him to be reformist especially in terms of
reshaping the NSW economy. Others though, regard
the Askin era as synonymous with corruption with
Askin the head of a network involving NSW police
and SP bookmaking (Goot).
In the late 1960s, a
secessionist movement in the
New England region of the state led to a
referendum on the issue. The new state would
have consisted of much of northern NSW including
Newcastle. The referendum was narrowly
defeated and, as of 2010, there are no active or
organised campaigns for new states in NSW.
Askin's resignation in 1975
was followed by a number of short lived
premierships by Liberal Party leaders. When a
general election came in 1976 the ALP under
Neville Wran were returned to power. Wran
was able to transform this narrow one seat
victory into landslide wins (known as Wranslide)
in 1978 and 1981.
After winning a comfortable
though reduced majority in 1984, Wran resigned
as premier and left parliament. His replacement
Barrie Unsworth struggled to emerge from
Wran's shadow and lost a 1988 election against a
resurgent Liberal Party led by
Nick Greiner. Unsworth was replaced as ALP
leader by Bob Carr. Initially Greiner was a
popular leader instigating reform such as the
creation of the
Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC).
Greiner called a snap election in 1991 which the
Liberals were expected to win. However the ALP
polled extremely well and the Liberals lost
their majority and needed the support of
independents to retain power.
Greiner was accused (by ICAC)
of corrupt actions involving an allegation that
a government position was offered to tempt an
independent (who had defected from the Liberals)
to resign his seat so that the Liberal party
could regain it and shore up its numbers.
Greiner resigned but was later cleared of
corruption. His replacement as Liberal leader
and Premier was
John Fahey whose government secured Sydney
the right to host the 2000 Summer Olympics. In
the 1995 election, Fahey's government lost
narrowly and the ALP under
Bob Carr returned to power.
Like Wran before him Carr was
able to turn a narrow majority into landslide
wins at the next two elections (1999 and 2003).
During this era, NSW hosted the
2000 Sydney Olympics which were
internationally regarded as very successful, and
helped boost Carr's popularity. Carr surprised
most people by resigning from office in 2005. He
was replaced by
Morris Iemma, who remained Premier after
being re-elected in the
March 2007 state election, until he was
Nathan Rees in September 2008. Rees was
subsequently replaced by
Kristina Keneally in December 2009.
Keneally's government was
defeated at the
2011 state election and
Barry O'Farrell became Premier on 28 March.
Government of New South Wales
Executive authority is vested in
Governor of New South Wales,
who represents and is appointed
Queen Elizabeth II. The
current Governor is Her
Marie Bashir. The Governor
commissions as Premier the
leader of the parliamentary
political party that can command
a simple majority of votes in
the Legislative Assembly. The
Premier then recommends the
appointment of other Members of
the two Houses to the Ministry,
under the principle of
Westminster government. It
should be noted, however, that
as in other Westminster systems,
there is no constitutional
requirement in NSW for the
Government to be formed from the
The Premier is
Barry O'Farrell of the
The form of the Government of
New South Wales is prescribed in
its Constitution, which dates
from 1856, although it has been
amended many times since then.
Since 1901 New South Wales has
been a state of the Commonwealth
of Australia, and the
regulates its relationship with
Under the Australian
Constitution, New South Wales
ceded certain legislative and
judicial powers to the
Commonwealth, but retained
independence in all other areas.
The New South Wales Constitution
says: "The Legislature shall,
subject to the provisions of the
Commonwealth of Australia
Constitution Act, have power to
make laws for the peace,
welfare, and good government of
New South Wales in all cases
State Parliament is composed
of the Sovereign and two houses:
(lower house), and the
(upper house). Elections are
held every four years on the
fourth Saturday of March, the
most recent being on 26
March 2011. At each election one
member is elected to the
Legislative Assembly from each
electoral districts and half
of the 42 members of the
Legislative Council are elected
by a statewide electorate.
New South Wales is divided into
Local Government Areas. In
addition, there is also the
Unincorporated Far West Region
which is not part of any local
government area, in the sparsely
Far West, and
Lord Howe Island, which is
self-governed by the Lord Howe
New South Wales is policed by
New South Wales Police Force,
a statutory authority.
Established in 1862, the NSW
Police Force investigates
Summary and Indictable offences
throughout the State of New
South Wales. The state has two
fire services: the volunteer
New South Wales Rural Fire
Service, which is
responsible for the majority of
the state, and the
Fire and Rescue NSW, a
government agency responsible
for protecting urban areas.
There is some overlap due to
services are provided through
Ambulance Service of New South
Wales. Rescue services (i.e.
vertical, road crash,
confinement) are a joint effort
by all emergency services, with
Ambulance Rescue, Police Rescue
Squad and Fire Rescue Units
contributing. Volunteer rescue
organisations include the
Australian Volunteer Coast Guard,
State Emergency Service
(SES), Surf Life Saving New
South Wales and
Volunteer Rescue Association
The estimated population of New
South Wales at the end of June
2010 was 7.24 million people.
Population grew by 1.5% over the
lower than the
national rate of 1.7%.
NSW's population is based in
Wales is vital for
cross-continent transport. Rail
and road traffic from Brisbane
(Queensland) to Perth (Western
Australia), or to Melbourne
(Victoria) must pass through New
of railways in New South Wales
are currently operated by the
state government. Some lines
began as branch-lines of
railways starting in other
states. For instance,
Balranald near the Victorian
border was connected by a rail
line coming up from Victoria and
into New South Wales. Another
line beginning in Adelaide
crossed over the border and
stopped at Broken Hill.
management is conducted by
railways and maintains rolling
stock. It operates trains within
under the name
country and interstate services
are the concern of both federal
and state governments. The
latter maintains these through
Roads and Traffic Authority
Department of Main Roads (DMR).
roads in New South Wales are:
are usually the concern of the
RTA and/or the
local government authority.
Kingsford Smith Airport
(commonly Sydney Airport, and
locally and erroneously referred
Mascot Airport), located in
the southern Sydney suburb of
Mascot is the major airport for
not just the state but the whole
nation. It is a hub for
Australia's national airline
airlines serving regional New
South Wales include:
Sydney Ferries operates
ferries within Sydney Harbour
and the Parramatta River. It
also has a ferry service within
Newcastle. All other ferry
services are privately operated.
Spirit of Tasmania ran a
commercial ferry service between
Devonport, Tasmania. This
service was terminated in 2006.
services operated between South
Australia, Victoria and New
South Wales along the Murray and
Darling Rivers but these only
exist now as the occasional
tourist paddle-wheeler service.
The NSW school
system comprises a
kindergarten to year
twelve system with
primary schooling up
to year 6 and
between year 7 and
12. Schooling is
compulsory until age
schools are further
Typically, a primary
to year 6. A
usually called a
from years 7 to 12.
schools which only
cater for years 11
classifies the 13
years of primary and
into six stages,
beginning with early
ending with stage 6
(years 11 and 12).
was awarded by the
Board of Studies
to students at the
end of Year 10. The
Board of Studies
external tests in
tests were designed
to grade a student
on their ability.
The results of this
bands 1 through to 6
with band 1 as the
lowest and band 6 as
tests would not
continue after 2011.
The Higher School
Certificate (HSC) is
the usual Year 12
in NSW. Most
the HSC prior to
workforce or going
on to study at
the HSC itself can
be completed at TAFE).
The HSC must be
completed for a
student to get an
which determines the
completed the Higher
primarily operate in
New South Wales.
Sydney is home to
University of Sydney,
founded in 1850, as
well as the
University of New
two of its six
campuses in Sydney,
and the private
University of Notre
also operates a
secondary campus in
Outside Sydney, the
Armidale is home to
University of New
across cities in the
and north coast
they are largely
regulated by the
Admission to NSW
with universities in
training is provided
up the level of
advanced diplomas is
provided by the
These institutes run
courses in over 130
Main article: Economy of New South Wales
Since the 1970s, New South Wales has undergone an increasingly rapid economic and social transformation. Old industries such as steel and shipbuilding have largely disappeared; although agriculture remains important, its share of the state's income is smaller than ever before.
New industries such as information technology and financial services are largely centred in Sydney and have risen to take their place, with many companies having their Australian headquarters in Sydney CBD. In addition, the Macquarie Park area of Sydney has attracted the Australian headquarters of many information technology firms.
Coal and related products are the state's biggest export. Its value to the state's economy is over A$5 billion, accounting for about 19% of all exports from NSW.
Tourism has also become important, with Sydney as its centre, also stimulating growth on the North Coast, around Coffs Harbour and Byron Bay. Tourism is worth over $40 billion to the New South Wales economy and employs 4.8% of the workforce. In 2007, then-Premier of New South Wales Morris Iemma established Events New South Wales to "market Sydney and NSW as a leading global events destination".
New South Wales had a Gross State Product in 2010–11 (equivalent to Gross Domestic Product) of $419.9 billion which equalled $57,828 per capita.
On 9 October 2007, NSW announced plans to build a 1,000 MW bank of wind powered turbines. The output of these is anticipated to be able to power up to 400,000 homes. The cost of this project will be $1.8 billion for 500 turbines. On 28 August 2008, the New South Wales cabinet voted to privatise electricity retail, causing 1,500 electrical workers to strike after a large anti-privatisation campaign.
The NSW business community is represented by the NSW Business Chamber which has 30,000 members.
See also: Agriculture in Australia
Agriculture is spread throughout the eastern two-thirds of New South Wales. Cattle, sheep and pigs are the predominant types of livestock produced in NSW and they have been present since their importation during the earliest days of European settlement. Economically the state is the most important state in Australia, with about one-third of the country's sheep, one-fifth of its cattle, and one-third of its small number of pigs. New South Wales produces a large share of Australia's hay, fruit, legumes, lucerne, maize, nuts, wool, wheat, oats, oilseeds (about 51%), poultry, rice (about 99%), vegetables, fishing including oyster farming, and forestry including wood chips. Bananas and sugar are grown chiefly in the Clarence, Richmond and Tweed River areas.
The world's finest wools are produced on the Northern Tablelands as well as prime lambs and beef cattle. The cotton industry is centred in the Namoi Valley in northwestern New South Wales. On the central slopes there are many orchards, with the principal fruits grown being apples, cherries and pears.
Approximately 40,200 ha of vineyards lie across the eastern region of the state, with excellent wines produced in the Hunter Valley, with the Riverina being the largest wine producer in New South Wales. Australia’s largest and most valuable Thoroughbred horse breeding area is centred on Scone in the Hunter Valley. The Hunter Valley is the home of the world famous Coolmore, Darley and Kia-Ora Thoroughbred horse studs.
About half of Australia's timber production is in New South Wales. Large areas of the state are now being replanted with eucalyptus forests.
New South Wales has more than 780 national parks and reserves covering more than 8% of the state. These parks range from rainforests, spectacular waterfalls, rugged bush to marine wonderlands and outback deserts, including World Heritage areas.
The Royal National Park on the southern outskirts of Sydney became Australia's first National Park when proclaimed on 26 April 1879. Originally named The National Park until 1955, this park was the second National Park to be established in the world after Yellowstone National Park in the U.S. Kosciuszko National Park is the largest park in state encompassing New South Wales' alpine region.
The National Parks Association was formed in 1957 to create a system of national parks all over New South Wales which lead to the formation of the National Parks and Wildlife Service in 1967. This government agency is responsible for developing and maintaining the parks and reserve system, and conserving natural and cultural heritage, in the state of New South Wales. These parks preserve special habitats, plants and wildlife, such as the Wollemi National Park where the Wollemi Pine grows and areas sacred to Australian Aboriginals such as Mutawintji National Park in western New South Wales.
Main article: Sport in New South Wales
Throughout Australian history, NSW sporting teams have been very successful in both winning domestic competitions and providing players to the Australian national teams.
The largest sporting competition in the state is the National Rugby League, which expanded from the New South Wales Rugby League and Australian Rugby Leagues whose headquarters are in Sydney. The state is represented by the The 'Blues' in the traditional Rugby League State of Origin series. Sydney is the spiritual home of Australian rugby league and to 9 of the 16 NRL teams: (Sydney Roosters, South Sydney Rabbitohs, Parramatta Eels, Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks, Wests Tigers, Penrith Panthers, Canterbury Bulldogs and Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles), as well as being the northern home of the St George Illawarra Dragons, which is half-based in Wollongong. A tenth team, the Newcastle Knights is located in Newcastle. The City vs Country origin match is also taken to various regional cities around the state.
The state is represented by three teams in football (soccer)'s A-League: Sydney FC (the inaugural champions in 2005–06), the Central Coast Mariners, based at Gosford and the Newcastle United Jets (2007–08 A League Champions). Football has the highest number of registered players in New South Wales of any football code. Australian rules football has historically not been strong in New South Wales outside the Riverina region. However, the Sydney Swans relocated from South Melbourne in 1982 and their presence and success since the late 1990s has raised the profile of Australian rules football, especially after their AFL premiership in 2005. A second NSW AFL club, located in Western Sydney, will enter the competition in 2012. Other teams in national competitions include basketball's Sydney Kings, Sydney Uni Flames, rugby union's NSW Waratahs and netball's Sydney Swifts.
Sydney was the host of the 2000 Summer Olympics and the 1938 British Empire Games. The Olympic Stadium, now known as ANZ Stadium is the scene of the annual NRL Grand Final. It also regularly hosts rugby league State of Origin games and rugby union internationals, and has recently hosted the final of the 2003 Rugby World Cup and the football World Cup qualifier between Australia and Uruguay.
The main summer sport is cricket and the SCG hosts the 'New Year' cricket Test match from 2–6 January each year, and is also one of the sites for the finals of the One Day International series. The NSW Blues play in the Ford Ranger Cup and Sheffield Shield cricket competitions. The annual Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race begins in Sydney Harbour on Boxing Day. The climax of Australia's touring car racing series is the Bathurst 1000, held near the city of Bathurst.
The popular equine sports of campdrafting and polocrosse were developed in New South Wales and competitions are now held across Australia. Polocrosse is now played in many overseas countries.
As Australia's most populous state, New South Wales is home to a number of cultural institutions of importance to the nation. In music, New South Wales is home to the Sydney Symphony Orchestra, Australia's busiest and largest orchestra. Australia's largest opera company, Opera Australia, is headquartered in Sydney. Both of these organisations perform a subscription series at the Sydney Opera House. Other major musical bodies include the Australian Chamber Orchestra. Sydney is host to the Australian Ballet for its Sydney season (the ballet is headquartered in Melbourne). Apart from the Sydney Opera House, major musical performance venues include the City Recital Hall and the Sydney Town Hall.
New South Wales is home to a number of major art galleries. The Art Gallery of New South Wales (AGNSW), houses a significant collection of Australian art, while the Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney focuses on contemporary art.
Major museums include the natural history-focussed Australian Museum, the technology and arts-and-crafts focussed Powerhouse Museum, the Sydney Maritime Museum which focuses on Australia's maritime history, and the history-focussed Museum of Sydney. Other museums include the Sydney Jewish Museum.
Sydney is home to five Arts teaching organisations which have all produced world famous students: The National Art School, The College of Fine Arts, the National Institute of Dramatic Art (NIDA), the Australian School of Film, Radio and Television and the Conservatorium of Music (now part of the University of Sydney).
New South Wales has been the backdrop of many international films, including Mission: Impossible II (shot in Sydney), and Mad Max 2 (known in the US as The Road Warrior), (shot in outback New South Wales, around Broken Hill).
20th Century Fox operates Fox Studios Australia in Sydney.
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