KOSHER DELIGHT - YOUR JEWISH ONLINE MAGAZINE!
THE HOLOCAUST IN UKRAINE:
||22 June 1941 to late
shootings, concentration camps, ghettos, forced labor,
starvation, torture, mass kidnapping
Paul Blobel and many others
Ordnungspolizei, and others
850,000 - 900,000 Jews
||At various points in
The Holocaust in Ukraine took
place during the
Occupation of Ukraine by Nazi Germany.
Between 1941 and 1945, approximately 3,000,000 Ukrainian
and other non-Jewish victims were killed as part of Nazi
extermination policies, along with between 850,000 -
Jews who lived in the territory of modern
One of Hitler's ambitions
at the start of the war was to exterminate, expel, or
enslave most or all
Slavs from their native lands so as to make
living space for German settlers. This plan of
was to be carried into effect gradually over a period of
Death squads (1941–1943)
Total civilian losses
during the war and German occupation in Ukraine are
estimated at four million, including up to a million
Jews who were murdered by the
Einsatzgruppen and local Nazi collaborators.
Einsatzgruppe C (SS-Gruppenführer
Dr. Otto Rasch) was assigned to north and central
Einsatzgruppe D (SS-Gruppenführer
Dr. Otto Ohlendorf) to Moldavia, south Ukraine, the
Crimea, and, during 1942, the north
Caucasus. According to Ohlendorf at
his trial, "the Einsatzgruppen had the
mission to protect the rear of the troops by killing the
Jews, Romani, Communist functionaries, active
Communists, uncooperative slavs, and all persons who
would endanger the security." In practice, their victims
were nearly all Jewish civilians (not a single
Einsatzgruppe member was killed in action during
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum tells the
story of one survivor of the Einsatzgruppen in
Piryatin, Ukraine, when they killed 1,600 Jews on
April 6, 1942, the second day of
|I saw them
do the killing. At 5:00 p.m. they gave the
command, "Fill in the pits." Screams and
groans were coming from the pits. Suddenly I
saw my neighbor Ruderman rise from under the
soil … His eyes were bloody and he was
screaming: "Finish me off!" … A murdered
woman lay at my feet. A boy of five years
crawled out from under her body and began to
scream desperately. "Mommy!" That was all I
saw, since I fell unconscious.
The most notorious massacre of Jews in Ukraine was at
Babi Yar ravine outside
Kiev, where 33,771 Jews were killed in a single
operation on September 29–30, 1941. (An amalgamation of
100,000 to 150,000 Ukrainian and other Soviet citizens
were also killed in the following weeks). The mass
killing of Jews in Kiev was decided on by the military
governor Major-General Friedrich Eberhardt, the Police
Commander for Army Group South (SS-Obergruppenführer
Friedrich Jeckeln) and the Einsatzgruppe C
Commander Otto Rasch. It was carried out by a mixture of
SS, SD and Security Police, assisted by the
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police. On the Monday, the Jews
of Kiev gathered by the
cemetery, expecting to be loaded onto trains. The
crowd was large enough that most of the men, women, and
children could not have known what was happening until
it was too late: by the time they heard the machine-gun
fire, there was no chance to escape. All were driven
down a corridor of soldiers, in groups of ten, and then
shot. A truck driver described the scene:
Jews of the
city of Kiev and vicinity! On Monday, September
29, you are to appear by 08:00 a.m. with your
possessions, money, documents, valuables, and
warm clothing at Dorogozhitskaya Street, next to
the Jewish cemetery. Failure to appear is
punishable by death.
—Order posted in
Kiev in Russian and Ukrainian, on or around
September 26, 1941.
[O]ne after the
other, they had to remove their luggage, then their
coats, shoes, and overgarments and also underwear …
Once undressed, they were led into the ravine which
was about 150 meters long and 30 meters wide and a
good 15 meters deep … When they reached the bottom
of the ravine they were seized by members of the
Schutzmannschaft and made to lie down on top of
Jews who had already been shot … The corpses were
literally in layers. A police marksman came along
and shot each Jew in the neck with a
submachine gun … I saw these marksmen stand on
layers of corpses and shoot one after the other …
The marksman would walk across the bodies of the
executed Jews to the next Jew, who had meanwhile
lain down, and shoot him.
Ukrainian collaborators (heads of local administration
and public figures)
Oleksander Ohloblyn (Kiev mayor, 1941)
Volodymyr Bahaziy (Kiev mayor, 1941–1942,
executed by Germans in 1942)
Leontii Forostivsky (Kiev mayor, 1942–1943)
Mykola Velychkivsky (head of the Ukrainian
National Committee in Kiev, dismissed in 1942, later
Oleksii Kramarenko (Kharkiv mayor, 1941–1942,
executed by Germans in 1943)
Oleksander Semenenko (Kharkiv mayor, 1942–1943)
Paul Kozakevich (Kharkiv mayor, 1943)
Aleksandr Sevastianov (Vinnytsia mayor, 1941
According to the
The Simon Wiesenthal Center (in January 2011)
"Ukraine has, to the best of our knowledge, never
conducted a single investigation of a local Nazi war
criminal, let alone prosecuted a Holocaust perpetrator."
Righteous among the Nations
Ukraine rates the 4th in
the number of people recognized as "Righteous among the
Nations" for saving Jews during the Holocaust, with the
total of 2272 individuals recognized to date.
The religious Christian
Shtundists, helped hide Jews in Ukraine during the
Andrew Gregorovich, World War II in Ukraine:
Jewish Holocaust in Ukraine
Magocsi, Paul Robert
A History of Ukraine. University of
Toronto Press. pp. 633.
Dawidowicz, Lucy S.
(1986). The war against the Jews, 1933–1945.
New York: Bantam Books.
ISBN 0-553-34302-5. p.
EICHHOLTZ "»Generalplan Ost« zur Versklavung
Czesław. "Die Besatzungssysteme der Achsenmächte.
Versuch einer komparatistischen Analyse."
Studia Historiae Oeconomicae vol. 14 (1980):
 in Hitler's War in the East,
1941-1945: A Critical Assessment by Gerd R.
Uebersch̀ear and Rolf-Dieter Müller
Berenbaum, Michael. The World Must Know.
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Johns
Hopkins University Press, 2nd edition, 2006, p.
Berenbaum, Michael. The World Must Know,
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, this
edition 2006, pp. 97–98.
Nazi-hunters give low grades to 13 countries,
Kyiv Post (January 12, 2011)
The Holocaust in Ukraine
Nazi occupation and
Ghettos, camps and
Resistance and survivors
documents and evidence
investigations and trials
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