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ITALY: EMILIA-ROMAGNA

Province of Bologna

 

 

 

 

1. Italy - Region Emilia Romagna - Province of Bologna
The Province of Bologna has a surface area of 370,244 square km,
with a total population of over 900,000 inhabitants. It is administratively
 divided into 60 Municipalities:
2. List of the "Comuni" of the Province

  • Anzola dell'Emilia
  • Argelato
  • Baricella
  • Bazzano
  • Bentivoglio
  • Bologna
  • Borgo Tossignano
  • Budrio
  • Calderara di Reno
  • Camugnano
  • Casalecchio di Reno
  • Casalfiumanese
  • Castel d'Aiano
  • Castel del Rio
  • Castel di Casio
  • Castel Guelfo di Bologna
  • Castel Maggiore
  • Castel San Pietro Terme
  • Castello d'Argile
  • Castello di Serravalle
  • Castenaso
  • Castiglione dei Pepoli
  • Crespellano
  • Crevalcore
  • Dozza
  • Fontanelice
  • Gaggio Montano
  • Galliera
  • Granaglione
  • Granarolo dell'Emilia
  • Grizzana Morandi
  • Imola
  • Lizzano in Belvedere
  • Loiano
  • Malalbergo
  • Marzabotto
  • Medicina
  • Minerbio
  • Molinella
  • Monghidoro
  • Monte San Pietro
  • Monterenzio
  • Monteveglio
  • Monzuno
  • Mordano
  • Ozzano dell'Emilia
  • Pianoro
  • Pieve di Cento
  • Porretta Terme
  • Sala Bolognese
  • San Benedetto Val di Sambro
  • San Giorgio di Piano
  • San Giovanni in Persiceto
  • San Lazzaro di Savena
  • San Pietro in Casale
  • Sant'Agata Bolognese
  • Sasso Marconi
  • Savigno
  • Vergato
  • Zola Predosa
Source: http://www.italyworldclub.com/emilia/bologna/

3. EMILIA-ROMAGNA - BACKGROUND:

 

The name Emilia-Romagna comes from the Roman history. Emilia derives from the name of  Marcus Aemilius Lepidus under who's consulate was built the road via Emilia between Piacenza and Rimini. Romagna remembers the division of the territory in VI century: to the north-east - the land of Lombards (Longobardia); to the south-east - the land of Romans (Romania). So modern Romagna is a historical region and includes provinces of Ravenna and Forli', plus the zone of Imola in the province of Bologna. The rest of the territory belongs to Emilia.
Area: 22 123 sq.km (8628 sq.miles) (7.3%), population 3 940 000 inhabitants (6.8%), density 178 inhab./sq.km.
The first settlements appeared in the Neolithic and Iron ages on the banks of the rivers. Later came Ligurians, Celts, Etruscans and Umbrians. The first systematic arrangement of the territory was conducted by Romans who made this region a fortified base between Italy and Gaul. Here was traced the road via Emilia along which were built the most important cities, except Ravenna and Ferrara.
After Romans the greatest part of the territory was conquered by Lombards; only Ravenna and Forli' still belonged to eastern Roman empire, Ravenna became even a capital of it, and the territory around these cities was called Romania, later modified into Romagna.
Thanks to the geographical position and rich agricultural resources this region nearly for all of its history was quite prosperous.
Emilia.JPG (16605 bytes)
In the times of Renaissance here took place the great urbanistic revolution, by the order of Ercole I d'Este the architect Biagio Rossetti projected the "new" Ferrara, called "the first modern city of Europe". But the transformation of the territory touched not only the cities, but the country sides as well. Here were built numerous irrigation channels, introduced new plants and etc.
In times of pontifical government the region suffered from a long crisis till 1860, the year of annexation of Emilia-Romagna to Italy. Since then the work of improvement of the land organization continued. This time were involved not only the plain zones but also the mountain and the hill parts, where 65 % of territory was adapted to cultivation and use. Here were built  the aqueducts, power lines, methane pipelines, roads and highways. At the same time took place the development of industry and tourism.
Thus, the region of Emilia-Romagna is considered to be one of the best places to live in Italy.
4.
History of Emilia-Romagna
Man and Territory Economy and Resources
Archeology and Art
Origins
In the II millenium b.C. Emilia-Romagna was already inhabited. In V-VI centuries b.C. here came the Etruscans and Gauls. The Etruscans had founded Felsina and created numerous commercial centers which had the exit to the sea in the zone called Spina, modern Comacchio.  
Roman Epoch
(from II century b.C.)
Romans defeated Gauls and settled in the region. Opened the via Emilia and founded some of the colonies (Rimini, Ravenna, Piacenza).  
Middle Ages
(V - XV centuries)
In V century Ravenna became the capital of the eastern Roman Empire; the Lombards invaded the north-western part of the region; the south-eastern part remained under Byzantines. During the XII century Bologna assumed great power. After barbaric invasions in XI century the work of territory improvement continues. Creation of passageways through the Apennines. Development of commerce and artisan activities. In XIV century Bologna is noted for its University, production of wool; Ferrara became famous for the tapestry production. Basilica of San Vitale and church of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna (VI century); the cathedral of Modena (XI century, Wiligelmo) and of Parma (XII century, Antelami).
Renaissance
(XV - XVI centuries)
The period of maximum splendour of the court of Este in Ferrara and Modena and of Farnese in Parma and Piacenza. Bologna and Ravenna became pontifical legations.   Urbanistic arrangement of Ferrara by the architect B.Rossetti. Palazzo Ducale in Modena.
Modern Epoch (XVII=XVIII)
In 1796 the French occupied the region which became the part of Cispadane Republic (and later of Cisalpine Republic). New progresses in communication system.  
XIX - XX centuries
After the congress of Vienne in 1815 the previous souvereigns were restored. In 1860 the region joined the new state of Italy. In the second half of the XIX century were built the new roads and railways. After the WWII began the intensive industrialization favoured by the presence of capital and continued construction of ways of communications. The start of touristic boom on the Adriatic seacoast.  
5. Position.
Emilia-Romagna is one of the most extended regions of Italy; it is limited by
 the Adriatic, the Apennines and Po. Borders on Lombardy and Veneto
  (north), Liguria and Piedmont (west), Tuscany and Marche (south),
 the Adriatic Sea (east). Between Romagna and Marche the little independent
 Republic of San Marino is located.
6. Climate.
There are three climates presented in Emilia-Romagna. In the plain
 zones the climate is continental (cold and foggy winters, hot and humid summers);
 in mountain zones the climate is of Alpine type (cold and foggy winters and
 cool summers);
in the seaside zones  the climate is moderate with cold winds from north-east.
Bologna
January: -0.4 C
July: 23 C
Altitudes
plain: 48%
hill: 27%
mountain: 25%
7. Landscape.
The mountain part of the region are poor of fertile lands and vegetation,
while the plain zones introduce one of the most animated landscapes of
 the northern Italy. Here predominates little and medium private agricultural
 businesses, as well as big companies with a great number of employees,
and cooperatives.
The region is rich of rivers (Po, Trebbia, Nure, Arda, Taro, Parma, Enza,
Secchia, Panaro, Reno, Rubicone, Marecchia, Conca) most of which are
 born in the Apennines.
8. Communications.
The main communication ways are via Emilia, the ancient Roman tract.
 Parallel to it go a railway and a highway; because of its position the region
 is obliged to serve as a transit between Northern and southern Italy.
Ravenna is an important sea port with a notable traffic of goods thanks to
developed industrial production. There are two airports, the most important
 one is in Bologna and the second is in Rimini used in summer period for
 international charter flights.
Tourism
Total: 42 400 000
Italians: 75%
Foreigners: 25%
Employment
agriculture: 7%
industry: 35%
commerce,
tourism: 58%
9. Agriculture and breeding.
The agriculture in Emilia-Romagna is one of the most progressive in Italy
 organized with the limited usage of working hands and with modern technical
equipment. The principal cultivated growings are: corn, maize,  sugar beet,
 fruits (peach, strawberry, cherry, pear, apple, apricot, plum); vegetables.
 The breeding of cattle is on the second place in Italy after Lombardy.
 Here is very well developed the production of wines a big part of which
 is exported to the United States. The fishing is also notable
 (1/5 of national fish product).
10. Industry.
Emilia-Romagna is the only Italian region which projected its development
 according to the very precise model concentrated on little and
medium private business and cooperatives. Here was denied to build
 big industrial complexes with the exception of two chemical plants in
 Ferrara (Montedison) and in Ravenna (Anic). The basic productions
 apart from those traditional (transformation of agricultural and breeding
products) are: metal-mechanics (production of Ferrari in Maranello),
 textile, clothing, chemical, glass, pharmaceutical, furniture and
 construction materials; high technological mechanics and electronics.
Hydroenergy Italy:
44 000 000 kWh
Emilia-Romagna:
1 100 000 kWh
Thermoenergy Italy:
128 000 000 kWh
Emilia-Romagna:
8 200 000 kWh
Births (per 1000)
Italy: 9.9
Emilia-Romagna: 6.8
Deaths (per 1000)
Italy: 9.3
Emilia-Romagna: 11.1
Remnant
Italy: 0.6
Emilia-Romagna: -4.3
11. Population.
The distribution of the population in the region is very balanced,
none of the urbanistic centers has got predominating demographic
 or other functions. The important commercial and industrial center
 as Bologna has only 1/9 of the population of Emilia-Romagna.
The second aspect is a tendency to increase of the population,
but it is not due to the birth-rate which is even lower than mortality,
 but to the fact of greater number of immigrants than of emigrants.
12. Life.
Emilia-Romagna is a rich region, it is on the 3rd place after Lombady
 and Valle d'Aosta by the product per inhabitant. In the rate of the
 richest cities of Italy Bologna is the 1st, Parma is the 5th, Ravenna
 is the 8th, Modena is the 9th, Reggio Emilia is the 11th. Emilia-Romagna
 is on the 4th place by the consumption of goods and services per inhabitant.
 Women and men here live longer lives than an average Italian.
The percent of people with University degree in this region is the
 highest in northern Italy; and it is the 3rd in Italy by the number of school
graduates. The quality of life is high (see the tables below).
 Here the number of crimes is inferior to the average Italian
 rate and the lowest in central-northern Italy.
Inhabitants per car
Italy: 2.0
Emilia-Romagna: 1.7
Expenses for sport/recreation
(liras per inhabitant)
Italy: 48 500
Emilia-Romagna: 95 700
Monthly income per inhabitant
1 632 000 It.Liras 
(816 US Dollars)
13. Provinces and communes.
The region is divided in eight provinces: Bologna, Ferrara,
 Forli', Modena, Parma, Piacenza, Ravenna, Reggio nell'Emilia,
 and Rimini with 341 communes.

Source: http://www.italycyberguide.com/Geography/regions/emilia.htm

14. אמיליה

חבל טבעי ואדמיניסטראטיבי באיטליה הצפונית. נקרא כך מתקופת אוגוסטוס קיסר על שם דרך-אמיליה, העוברת בו. השם הרשמי כיום הוא אמיליה-רומניה. החבל כולל את המחוזות פורלי, רונה, פררה, בולוניה, מודנה, רג'ו נל אמיליה, פרמה ופיצ'נצ'ה. שטחו בערך 22 קמ"ר, מהם כ 55% בשפלה שמדרום לנהר פו ו 45% בהרי האפנינים. גבולו של החבל בצפון זולת לאורך 60 ק"מ, הוא הפו, במזרח הגבול הוא הים האדריאטי, בדרום ובדרום מערב: עפ"ר פרשת-המים הראשית שבאפנינים. רק בצפון מערב אין לאמיליה גבול טבעי

האפנינים שבתחום אמיליה מתרוממים רק בנקודות מועטות למעלה מ 2000 מטר. השיא הוא מונטה צ'ימונה: 2163 מטר, מדרום למודנה. עמקי-נחלים מרובים שיורדים לפו או לרנו, נהר שיוצא מן האפנינים ופונה בשפלה מזרחה, מרחיבים את שטח הישוב לתוך ההר. בכמה מהם יש מעברים לעבר האפנינים. החשוב שבהם הוא המעבר בעמק-הרנו, שבו עוברת מסילת הברזל בולוניה-פירנצה, קו התחבורה העיקרי בין איטליה הצפונית והתיכונית. מציאותן של שש מערי-הבירה של מחוזות אמיליה לרגלי ההר מעידה על החשיבות הכלכלית והצבאית של המעברים בהרים ושל הקשר בין השפלה להר

רוב התושבים באמיליה מתפרנסים מחקלאות. התעשיה מעבדת את התוצרת החקלאית ואת תנובת-הרפת לצרכי החבל והמדינה. לגבינות אמיליה, שהן ידועות בשוק בשם גבינות פארמה, שם טוב גם מחוץ לאיטליה. כן יש באמיליה תעשיות של משי, לכה, זכוכית, מכונות חקלאיות ומכוניות

הסטוריה

בחלוקת איטליה ע"י אוגוסטוס נקבעה אמיליה כאזור השמיני. בקיסרות המאוחרת, מן המאה ה 2 ואילך, היתה אמיליה אחד מארבעת המחוזות המשפטיים של איטליה. עד 395 לסה"נ היוותה אמיליה עם ליגוריה פרובינציה קונסולארית אחת. מאז ואילך היתה מחוז עצמאי. בזמנו של דיוקלטיינוס, ואפשר עוד בזמנו של מארקוס אורליוס, ניטלה ממנה רוונה, שחזרה אליה בסוף המאה ה 4 ונעשתה עיר-הבירה שלה. עם פלישת הלאנגובארדים בשנת 568, נחרבה מודנה, אך שינויים מכריעים בהקפו של החבל לא באו עד המאה ה 13, כשבולוניה וחבליה הרומאניה ניתנו לאפיפיור ע"י אוטו הרביעי בשנת 1201, ופרידריך השני בשנת 1213. בימי ממשלת הלאנגובארדים פרחו התרבות וההשכלה במנזרים של אמיליה, אך השלטון היה בידי רוזנים חולונים. רק במאה ה 10 העניקו המלכים האיטלקיים את שלטון הערים לאפיסקופים, שהיה להם חלק ניכר בפילוג הכנסיה במאה ה 11. כתוצאה מנצחון האפיפיור של רומי נתפתח באמיליה שלטון בורגני, שבראשו עמדו קונסולים. ערי אמיליה השתתפו במאות ה 12 וה 13 בליגה הלומבארדית. ידה של מפלגת הגולפים היתה על העליונה בכל הערים משנת 1266, אך ריב-משפחות פילג את המנצחים והביא לידי התהוותן של הסיניוריות; לסוף השתלטו שתי סיניוריות: משפחת ויסקונטי, ששלטה בפארמה ובפיאצ'נצה, ומשפחת ד'אסטה, ששלטה במודנה וברג'ו. בעקבות המלחמות בין צרפת וספרד, שנערכו באיטליה במאה ה 16, השתלט האפיפיור בחבל אמיליה, ולחשיבות עלו משפחות דוכסים אחרות. תולדות החבל היו מאז, עוד יותר משהיו קודם לכן, תולדות הערים שבו

 
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