MAP AND PROFILE OF MONACO:
Area: 2.02 sq. km. (including new sea wall);
about the size of New York City's Central
City: Capital--Monaco, pop. 32,409
(July 2005 est.).
Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet
winters and hot, dry summers.
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Monegasque.
Population (2010 est.): 35,646.
Annual population growth rate (2010 est.):
Ethnic groups (2010): French 47%, Italian
16%, Monegasque 16%, other 21%.
Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%.
Languages: French (official), English,
Italian, and Monegasque.
Education: Years compulsory--10, ages
6-16. Attendance--99%. Literacy--99%.
Health (2009 est.): Infant mortality--5
deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy--76.3
yrs. male; 84.09 yrs. female. Birth rate
(2009 est.)--9.1 births/1,000 population.
Death rate (2008 est.)--12.96
Type: Constitutional monarchy.
Constitution: December 17, 1962 (amended in
Branches: Executive--Prince Albert II
(chief of state), Minister of State Michel
Roger (head of government), Council of
Government (cabinet under authority of the
National Council (24 members). Judicial--Court
of First Instance, Court of Appeal, High
Court of Appeal, Criminal Court, Supreme
Subdivisions: Four quarters (quartiers)--Monaco-Ville,
La Condamine, Monte-Carlo, Fontvieille.
Political parties: Union pour Monaco (UPM),
Rassemblement et Enjeux (REM), Parti
Suffrage: Universal adult at age 18.
GDP (2008): 4.492 billion euros (U.S. $6.086
Avg. annual growth rate (2008 est.): 0.41%.
GDP per capita: 60,595 euros (U.S. $82,107).
Work force (2008; 48,491): Private sector--44,736;
public sector--3,959. Banking--2,793;
construction and public works--5,388;
Agricultural products: 0.48% of GDP.
construction, chemicals, food products,
plastics, precision instruments, cosmetics,
Trade: Imports (2008)--18.6 million
euros (U.S. $25.2 million). Exports
(2008)--18.3 million euros (U.S. $24.79
million). Note: full customs integration
with France, which collects and rebates
Monegasque trade duties; also participates
in EU market system through customs union
Currency: Monaco, along with France and the
other 11 members of the European Monetary
Union (EMU), adopted the euro (€) as its
official currency on January 1, 2002. As in
other EMU states, euros minted in Monaco
have special Monegasque features on one side
of the coin. (1, 2, and 5 cent coins:
Grimaldis’ coat of arms; 10, 20, and 50 cent
coins: Prince’s seal; 1 and 2 euro coins:
Rainier III or Albert II profiles.)
The Principality of Monaco is the
second-smallest independent state in the
world, after the Holy See (Vatican City). It
is located on the Mediterranean coast, 18
kilometers (11 mi.) east of Nice, France,
and is surrounded on three sides by France.
Monaco is divided into four sections:
Monaco-Ville, the old city on a rocky
promontory extending into the Mediterranean;
La Condamine, the section along the port;
Monte-Carlo, the principal residential and
resort area; and Fontvieille, a newly
constructed area reclaimed from the sea.
The principality is noted for its beautiful
natural scenery and mild, sunny climate. The
average minimum temperature in January and
February is 8oC (47oF);
in July and August the average maximum
temperature is 26oC (78oF).
In 2010, Monaco's population was estimated
at 35,646, with an estimated average growth
rate for 2010 of 0.83%.
French is the official language; English,
Italian, and Monegasque (a blend of French
and Italian) also are spoken. The literacy
rate is 99%. Roman Catholicism is the
official religion, with freedom of other
religions guaranteed by the constitution.
Founded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa, Monaco
has been ruled by the House of Grimaldi
since 1297, except when under French control
from 1789 to 1814. Designated as a
protectorate of Sardinia from 1815 until
1860 by the Treaty of Vienna, Monaco's
sovereignty was recognized by the
Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. The Prince
of Monaco was an absolute ruler until a
constitution was promulgated in 1911.
In July 1918, a treaty was signed providing
for limited French protection over Monaco.
The treaty, formally noted in the Treaty of
Versailles, established that Monegasque
policy would be aligned with French
political, military, and economic interests.
A new constitution, proclaimed in 1962,
abolished capital punishment, provided for
female suffrage, and established a Supreme
Court to guarantee fundamental liberties.
In 1993, Monaco became an official member of
the United Nations with full voting rights.
It joined the Council of Europe in 2004.
Three months after the death of his father,
Prince Rainier III, on April 6, Prince
Albert II formally acceded to the throne on
July 12, 2005.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
Monaco has been governed as a constitutional
monarchy since 1911, with the Prince as
chief of state. The executive branch
consists of a Minister of State (head of
government), who presides over a five-member
Council of Government (cabinet). The
Minister of State is responsible for foreign
relations. As the Prince's representative,
the Minister of State also directs the
executive services, commands the police, and
presides (with voting powers) over the
Council of Government. The five members of
the Council are respectively responsible for
internal affairs, external affairs, the
environment, finance and economy, and social
affairs and health.
Under the 1962 constitution, the Prince
shares his power with the unicameral
National Council. Sixteen of the 24 members
of this legislative body are elected by list
majority system, and 8 by proportional
representation to serve 5-year terms. The
elections were last held in February 2008.
If the Prince dissolves the National
Council, new elections must be held within 3
months. Usually meeting twice annually, the
Council votes on the budget and endorses
laws proposed by the Prince.
Ordinances passed by the National Council
are debated in the Council of Government, as
are the ministerial decrees signed by the
Minister of State. Once approved, the
ordinances must be submitted to the Prince
within 80 days for his signature, which
makes them legally enforceable. If he does
not express opposition within 10 days of
submission, they become valid.
Judicial power is invested in the Prince,
who delegates judicial procedures to the
various courts, which dispense justice in
his name. The independence of the judges is
guaranteed by the constitution. The Supreme
Court is composed of five chief members and
two assistant judges named by the Prince on
the basis of nominations by the National
Council and other government bodies. The
Supreme Court is the highest court for
judicial appeals and also interprets the
constitution when necessary. Monaco's legal
system, closely related to that of France,
is patterned after the Napoleonic Code.
The principality's local affairs (the
administration of the four quarters of
Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo, and
Fontvieille) are directed by the Communal
Council, which consists of 15 elected
members and is presided over by the Mayor.
Principal Government Officials
Chief of State--Prince Albert II, Crown
Minister of State--Michel Roger
Ambassador to the United States--Gilles
Ambassador to the United Nations--Isabelle
Council of Government
Finance and Economic Affairs--Marco Piccini
Social Affairs and Health----Stephane Valeri
Environment, Equipment and Urbanism--Gilles
National Council President--Jean-Francois
President of Supreme Court--Hubert Charles
Director of Judicial Services--Philippe
Monaco, located on the Mediterranean coast,
has an economy primarily geared toward
finance, commerce, and tourism. Low taxes
have drawn many foreign companies to Monaco;
the companies' production accounts for
around 50% of the €846 million annual
government income ($1.235 billion; 2007).
The enterprises pay a 33.33% tax only if
more than 25% of their revenue is generated
abroad. Ever since Monaco's famed casino
opened in 1856, the tourism industry has
been booming. It currently accounts for
close to 25% of annual revenue.
Customs, postal services,
telecommunications, and banking in Monaco
are governed by an economic and customs
union with France. The official currency is
Though official economic statistics are not
published, 2008 estimates placed the gross
domestic product at 4.492 billion euros
(U.S. $6.086 billion); per capita income was
not published for 2008. Monaco does not
publish figures for unemployment.
Monaco is noted for its activity in the
field of marine sciences. Its Oceanographic
Museum, formerly directed by Jacques
Cousteau, is one of the most renowned
institutions of its kind in the world.
Monaco imports and exports products and
services from all over the world. There is
almost no commercial agriculture in Monaco.
Monaco actively participates in the United
Nations, which it joined in 1993. Monaco
joined the Council of Europe on October 4,
2004. Monaco also is a member of many
international and intergovernmental
organizations, including Interpol, the UN
Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO), and the World Health
Organization (WHO). The International
Hydrographic Bureau (IHB) is headquartered
The Principality of Monaco is a sovereign
and independent state, linked closely to
France by the Treaty of July 1918, which was
formally noted in Article 436 of the Treaty
of Versailles of 1919. The foreign policy of
Monaco is one illustration of this accord:
France has agreed to defend the independence
and sovereignty of Monaco, while the
Monegasque Government has agreed to exercise
its sovereign rights in conformity with
French interests. Since then, the relations
between the sovereign states of France and
Monaco have been further defined in the
Treaty of 1945 and the Agreement of 1963.
In 2002, Monaco renegotiated its 1918 treaty
with France. In 2005, it was ratified by
both parties and entered into force. The
terms of the treaty:
- Upgrade France's
representation in Monaco from Consulate
General to that of an embassy;
- Permit, for the
first time, other countries to accredit
ambassadors to Monaco; and
recognize the succession scheme set out
in the 1962 Constitution, which extends
eligibility to the Prince's daughters
and other family members.
Although not a member
of the European Union (EU), Monaco is
closely associated with the economic
apparatus of the EU through its customs
union with France and its reliance upon the
euro as its official currency.
Monaco has 10 diplomatic missions in Western
Europe and permanent representation at the
United Nations and the Council of Europe. It
maintains honorary consulates in 106 cities
in 45 countries. Seventy-six countries have
ambassadors, consulates general, consulates,
or honorary consulates in or accredited to
Monaco. The U.S. Ambassador to Paris has
been accredited to Monaco since 2006.
The United States and Monaco enjoy excellent
relations, which both countries seek to
maintain and strengthen. From 1956 until her
death in 1982, the American-born Grace Kelly
was married to Prince Rainier III, Prince
In December 2006, the United States and
Monaco upgraded from consular to full
diplomatic relations. Shortly after,
then-Ambassador Craig Stapleton (France) was
accredited to Monaco, and Ambassador Gilles
Noghes became the first Monegasque
ambassador to the United States.
The United States does not yet have a
diplomatic mission located in Monaco. The
U.S. Consulate General in Marseille handles
most working-level contacts with Monaco.
Principal U.S. Official
Ambassador (Paris, France)--Charles
U.S. Embassy in France is located
at 2 Avenue Gabriel, Paris 8 (tel.  (1)
U.S. Consulate General at
Marseille is located at Place Varian Fry,
13286 Marseille Cedex 6 (tel.
TRAVEL AND BUSINESS
Travel Alerts, Travel Warnings, Trip
The U.S. Department of State's Consular
Information Program advises Americans
traveling and residing abroad through
Country Specific Information, Travel Alerts,
and Travel Warnings. Country Specific
Information exists for all countries and
includes information on entry and exit
requirements, currency regulations, health
conditions, safety and security, crime,
political disturbances, and the addresses of
the U.S. embassies and consulates abroad.
Travel Alerts are issued to disseminate
information quickly about terrorist threats
and other relatively short-term conditions
overseas that pose significant risks to the
security of American travelers. Travel
Warnings are issued when the State
Department recommends that Americans avoid
travel to a certain country because the
situation is dangerous or unstable.
For the latest
security information, Americans living and
traveling abroad should regularly monitor
the Department's Bureau of Consular Affairs
Internet web site at
http://travel.state.gov, where current
Travel Alerts, and
Travel Warnings can be found. The
travel.state.gov website also includes
passports, tips for
planning a safe trip abroad and more.
More travel-related information also is
Smart Traveler app for U.S. travelers
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Travelers can also set up e-tineraries to
keep track of arrival and departure dates
and make notes about upcoming trips. The app
is compatible with iPhone, iPod touch, and
iPad (requires iOS 4.0 or later).
The Department of
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or residing abroad to register via the
State Department's travel registration
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consulate abroad (a link to the registration
page is also available through the Smart
Traveler app). Registration will make your
presence and whereabouts known in case it is
necessary to contact you in an emergency and
will enable you to receive up-to-date
information on security conditions.
concerning Americans traveling abroad may be
obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free
in the U.S. and Canada or the regular toll
line 1-202-501-4444 for callers outside the
U.S. and Canada.
National Passport Information Center (NPIC)
is the U.S. Department of State's single,
centralized public contact center for U.S.
passport information. Telephone:
1-877-4-USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778); TDD/TTY:
1-888-874-7793. Passport information is
available 24 hours, 7 days a week. You may
speak with a representative Monday-Friday, 8
a.m. to 10 p.m., Eastern Time, excluding
Travelers can check the latest health
information with the U.S. Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta,
Georgia. A hotline at 800-CDC-INFO
(800-232-4636) and a web site at
give the most recent health advisories,
immunization recommendations or
requirements, and advice on food and
drinking water safety for regions and
countries. The CDC publication "Health
Information for International Travel" can be
Department of State Web Site.
Available on the Internet at
http://www.state.gov, the Department of
State web site provides timely, global
access to official U.S. foreign policy
information, including more
Background Notes, the Department's
daily press briefings along with the
key officers of Foreign Service posts
and more. The Overseas Security Advisory
Council (OSAC) provides security information
and regional news that impact U.S. companies
working abroad through its website
provides a portal to all export-related
assistance and market information offered by
the federal government and provides trade
leads, free export counseling, help with the
export process, and more.
Sources. Background Notes are
available on mobile devices at
http://m.state.gov/mc36882.htm, or use
the QR code below.
In addition, a mobile
version of the Department's
http://www.state.gov website is
http://m.state.gov, or use the QR code
below. Included on this site are Top
Stories, remarks and speeches by Secretary
Clinton, Daily Press Briefings, Country
Information, and more.
JEWISH AND KOSHER MONACO:
KOSHER FOOD AND RESTAURANTS
MAP AND PROFILE OF MONACO
MONACO ON THE NET