Viacheslav Plehve, the Minister of Interior, supposedly gave orders not to stop the rioters. However the pogrom lasted for three days, without the intervention of the police. Forty seven (some say 49) Jews were killed, 92 severely wounded, 500 slightly wounded and over 700 houses destroyed. Despite a world outcry, only two men were sentenced to seven and five years and twenty-two were sentenced for one or two years. This program is considered the first state-inspired action against Jews in the 20th century and was instrumental in convincing tens of thousands of Russian Jews to leave the Russian Empire and to the United States and Palestine.
Many of the younger Jews,
Mendel Portugali, made an effort to defend