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  JEWISH AND KOSHER TEXAS, USA    הקהילה היהודית ומסעדות כשרות בטקסס, ארצות הברית

JEWISH AND KOSHER UNITED STATES   הקהילה היהודית בארצות הברית

 
 
 
  TEXAS, USA  
 

JEWISH AND KOSHER EL PASO, TEXAS:

El Paso, (pronounced /ɛlˈpæsoʊ/) is a city in and the county seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States, and lies in far West Texas. In the 2010 census, the city had a population of 649,121.  It is the sixth largest city in Texas and the 19th largest city in the United States. Its metropolitan area covers all of El Paso County, whose population in the 2010 census was 800,647.

El Paso stands on the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte), across the border from Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The image to the right shows Downtown El Paso and Juárez, with the Juárez Mountains in the background. The two cities form a combined international metropolitan area, sometimes called Juarez-El Paso, with Juárez being the significantly larger of the two in population. Together they have a combined population of 2 million, with Juárez accounting for 2/3 of the population. In 2010 El Paso was awarded an All-America City Award, the oldest community recognition program in the United States.

El Paso is home to the University of Texas at El Paso (founded in 1914 as The Texas State School of Mines and Metallurgy, and later, Texas Western College; its present name dates from 1967) and the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at El Paso. Fort Bliss, one of the largest military complexes of the United States Army, lies to the east and northeast of the city, with training areas extending north into New Mexico, up to the White Sands Missile Range and neighboring Holloman Air Force Base in Alamogordo. The Franklin Mountains extend into El Paso from the north and nearly divide the city into two sections, the western half forming the beginnings of the Mesilla Valley and with the eastern slopes connecting in the central business district at the south end of the mountain range.


El Paso is located at 31°47′25″N 106°25′24″W / 31.79028°N 106.42333°W / 31.79028; -106.42333 (31.790208, -106.423242).  It lies at the intersection of three states (Texas, New Mexico, and Chihuahua) and two countries (the USA and Mexico). It is the only major Texas city on Mountain Time. Ciudad Juárez used to be on Central Time,  but both cities are now on Mountain Time.

The city's elevation is 3,800 feet (1,140 m) above sea level. North Franklin Mountain is the highest peak in the city at 7,192 feet (2,192 m) above sea level. The peak can be seen from 60 miles (100 km) in all directions. Additionally, this mountain range is home to the famous natural red-clay formation, the Thunderbird, from which the local Coronado High School gets its mascot's name. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 250.5 square miles (648.9 km²).

The 24,000-acre (9,700 ha) Franklin Mountains State Park is the largest urban park in the United States and resides entirely in El Paso, extending from the north and dividing the city into several sections along with Fort Bliss and El Paso International Airport.

The Rio Grande Rift, which passes around the southern end of the Franklin Mountains, is where the Rio Grande flows. The river defines the border between El Paso from Ciudad Juárez to the south and west until the river turns north of the border with Mexico, separating El Paso from Doña Ana County, New Mexico. Mt. Cristo Rey, a volcanic peak (an example of a pluton) rises within the Rio Grande Rift just to the west of El Paso on the New Mexico side of the Rio Grande. Other volcanic features include Kilbourne Hole and Hunt's Hole, which are Maar volcanic craters 30 miles (50 km) west of the Franklin Mountains.

El Paso is surrounded by the Chihuahuan Desert, the easternmost section of the Basin and Range Region.

Being in the westernmost tip of Texas, and due to the huge size of the state, El Paso is closer to four other state capitals (US and Mexican) than it is to its own capital of Austin, Texas (the other capitals being, Phoenix (Arizona), Santa Fe (New Mexico), neighboring Mexican city Chihuahua (Chihuahua), and Hermosillo (Sonora).


El Paso has a hot desert climate (Koppen BWh) with very hot summers, usually with little or no humidity, and mild, dry winters. Rainfall averages 9.4 inches (240 mm) per year, much of which occurs during the summer from July through September and is predominantly caused by the monsoon. During this period, southerly and southeasterly winds carry moisture from the Pacific, the Gulf of California, and the Gulf of Mexico into the region. When this moisture moves into the El Paso area and places to the southwest, orographic lift from the mountains, combined with strong daytime heating, causes thunderstorms, some severe enough to produce flash flooding and hail, across the region.

The sun shines 302 days per year on average in El Paso, 83 percent of daylight hours, according to the El Paso Weather Bureau. It is from this that the city is nicknamed "The Sun City."  Due to its dry climate, El Paso often experiences wind and dust storms during the spring, usually starting in March and lasting to early May. With an average wind speed of up to 30 miles per hour (50 km/h)  with gusts that have been measured at over 75 miles per hour (120 km/h),  these wind storms kick up large amounts of sand causing loss of visibility.

El Paso, at 3,800 feet (1,200 m) elevation, is also capable of receiving snow; weather systems have produced over a foot of snow on several occasions. In 1980, three major snowstorms produced over a foot of snow; one in February, another in April and the last one in December, producing a white Christmas for the city. A major snowstorm in December 1987 dumped over two feet (65 cm) of snow.

One example of El Paso's varying climate was the winter storm of early February 2011, which caused closures of schools, businesses, and City Hall. The snow stopped after about a day, but then because of below freezing temperatures El Paso utilities went into a crisis. Electric wires were broken, causing area blackouts; many water utility pipes froze, causing areas of the city to be without water for several days. When the pipes thawed, water was unsafe to drink due to filtration systems not working, therefore schools were closed again.

Monthly means range from 45.1 °F (7.3 °C) in January to 83.3 °F (28.5 °C) in July, but the warmest highs are typically in June. There are 60 nights below freezing, 109 days at or above 90 °F (32 °C) and 20 days above 100 °F (38 °C) each year.  The city's record high is 114 °F (46 °C), and its record low is −14 °F (−26 °C), with weather records for the area maintained by the National Weather Service since 1879.
 

Although the average annual rainfall is only about 9 inches (225 mm), many parts of El Paso are subject to occasional flooding during intense summer monsoonal thunderstorms. In late July and early August 2006, over 15 inches (380 mm) of rain fell in a week, overflowing all the flood-control reservoirs and causing major flooding city-wide. The city staff has estimated damage to public infrastructure as $21 million, and to private property (residential & commercial) as $77 million.  Much of the damage was associated with development in recent decades in arroyos protected by flood-control dams and reservoirs, and the absence of any storm drain utility in the city to handle the flow of rain water.

El Paso has historically been predominantly Hispanic. In the 1870s, a population of 23 Non-Hispanic whites and 150 Hispanics was reported.  In 1916, the Census Bureau reported El Paso's population as 53% Hispanic and 44% non-Hispanic white.

 
The median income for a household in the city was $32,124, and the median income for a family was $35,432. Males had a median income of $28,989 versus $21,540 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,388. About 19.0% of families and 22.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.8% of those under age 18 and 17.7% of those age 65 or over.

According to the 2006 United States Census Bureau population estimates, the El Paso metropolitan area had a population of 736,310.  In 2010 CQ Press ranked El Paso safest city in the U.S. with a population over 500,000.

In 2010, many Mexicans fleeing drug violence in Ciudad Juarez settled in El Paso. Benjamin Sáenz, a novelist and a literature professor at the University of Texas at El Paso, said during that year that El Paso was "becoming a lot more Mexican and a lot less Chicano."

The Tigua Indians of Ysleta del Sur Pueblo

Located between the cities of El Paso and Socorro lies the sovereign Ysleta del Sur Pueblo Nation, with its own governing body. It is one of the three Federally-recognized Indian tribes in Texas.

The Tigua Indians have been at their present location since a successful Pueblo Revolt of 1680 that forced the Spaniards and New Spaniards (future Mexicans) to retreat south to present day Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua and El Paso.  The tribe is led by a governor and a tribal council. Elections for tribal governor and tribal council are held once annually. As of January 2011, the governor is Frank Paiz.

 
 
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