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  MOROCCO מרוקו    
 
 
  MOROCCO  
  JEWISH COMMUNITY OF TANGIER, MOROCCO:

Jewish Woman of Tangier, by Charles Landelle
Jewish Woman of Tangier, by Charles Landelle

  1. The Jewish Community of Morocco - August 28, 2012
  2. The Last Synagogue of Tangier, Video - November 5, 2011
  3. Point of No Return: Tangier "Community" Resides in the Cemetery - the graves in the Jewish cemetery of Tangiers were unkempt and being used to dry someone's cloths - June 18, 2010
  4. No Danger to the Jewish Cemeteries in Tangiers - June 5, 2010
  5. Jewish Hospital in Tangiers Torn Down - April 27, 2010
  6. La Synagogue Moïse Nahon de Tanger, Video - June 16, 2008
  7. Letter from Tangier: Preserving the music of the Jews of Morocco - September 13, 2007
  8. Jews from Tangier in Canada - December 12, 1957
  9. Tangiers Jews Warn Against Nazi Agitation for Moslem-Jewish Strife - July 12, 1933
  10. Tangiers c 1900s Postcard - The Jews' Beach and River, Flicker
  11. The Jew's River, Tangiers (1887), Painting by Robert George Talbot Kelly
  12. Jewish Women of Tangier - Painting by Eugene Delacroix (1798 - 1863) in 1833
  13. The Jews of Tangier: Orientalist Drawings by Alfred Dehodencq
  14. The Jew from Tangier - by Anthony Grafton
  15. Jewish Tangiers
  16. Jewish Cemetery of Tangiers, Morocco
  17. International Jewish Cemetery Project: Tangier
  18. Tangiers, Rick Gold
  19. History of the Jews in Morocco
  20. Growing up in Sephardic Morocco
  21. Judaism in Islamic Lands
  22. The Toledano Family of Iquitos –
    On the Banks of the Peruvian Amazon River
  23. Shir HaShirim - Hazan Dudu Dar`ie, Part 1 of 2
  24. Shir HaShirim _ Hazan Dudu Dar`ie, Part 2 of 2
  25. Rare photos from Morocco

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Tangier is a Moroccan port city located near the Strait of Gibraltar. It was originally an ancient Phoenician trading post, and later became a Carthaginian and then a Roman settlement. After five centuries of Roman rule, it was captured successively by the Vandals, Byzantines, and Arabs.

Tangier is a Moroccan port city located near the Strait of Gibraltar. It was originally an ancient Phoenician trading post, and later became a Carthaginian and then a Roman settlement. After five centuries of Roman rule, it was captured successively by the Vandals, Byzantines, and Arabs.


At the cross-roads of Europe and Africa, of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, Tangier opens the door onto Morocco. There is still an air of mystery about the city, going back to the time when Tangier was an international zone. Since Tingis was founded in the IVth century BC, Carthaginians, Romans, Phoenicians, Vandals, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese and the English have jealously fought for the right to control it. No African city is closer to Europe, no other Orient is more dearly loved by European or American artists - painters, musicians or authors. Delacroix, Saint-Sains, Matisse, Van Dongen, Tenesse Williams, Jean Genet, Joseph Kessel, William Burroughs and Paul Bowles, to name but a few, have all lived in Tangier.

Date taken: 23-03-2006 Author: Aires dos Santos
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Tangier, also Tangiers (Berber: Tanja, archaic Berber name: Tingi, Arabic: طنجة Ṭanjah, Spanish: Tánger, Portuguese:Tânger, French: Tanger), is a city in northern Morocco with a population of about 700,000 (2012 estimates). It lies on the North African coast at the western entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar where the Mediterranean meets the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Spartel. It is the capital of the Tangier-Tetouan Region and of the Tangier-Asilah prefecture of Morocco.

The history of Tangier is very rich due to the historical presence of many civilizations and cultures starting from the 5th century BC. Between the period of being a Berber settlement and then a Phoenician town to the independence era around the 1950s, Tangier was a refuge for many cultures. In 1923, Tangier was considered as having international status by foreign colonial powers, and became a destination for many European and American diplomats, spies, writers and businessmen.

The city is currently undergoing rapid development and modernization. Projects include new 5-star hotels along the bay, a modern business district called Tangier City Center, a new airport terminal and a new football stadium. Tangier's economy is also set to benefit greatly from the new Tanger-Med port.

Tangier's sport team I.R.T. (or Ittihad Riadi de Tanger) is a prominent football club with a large followers base. Tangier will be one of the host cities for the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations football tournament, which shall be played at the new Ibn Batouta Stadium and in other cities across Morocco.

History


Tangier was founded by Carthaginian colonists in the early 5th century BC. Its name is possibly derived from the Berber goddess Tinjis (or Tinga).

According to Berber mythology, the town was built by Sufax, son of Tinjis, the wife of the Berber hero Änti (Greek Antaios, Latin Antaeus). The Greeks ascribed its foundation to the giant Antaios, whose tomb and skeleton are pointed out in the vicinity, calling Sufax the son of Hercules by the widow of Antaeus. The cave of Hercules, a few miles from the city, is a major tourist attraction. It is believed that Hercules slept there before attempting one of his twelve labours.

The commercial town of Tingis (Τιγγίς in Ancient Greek), came under Roman rule in the course of the 1st century BC, first as a free city and then, under Augustus, a colony (Colonia Julia, under Claudius), capital of Mauritania Tingitana of Hispania. It was the scene of the martyrdoms of Saint Marcellus of Tangier. In the 5th century AD, Vandalsconquered and occupied "Tingi" and from here swept across North Africa.

A century later (between 534 and 682), Tangier fell back to the Eastern Roman empire, before coming under Arab (Umayyad) control in 702. Due to its Christian past, it is still atitular see of the Roman Catholic Church.

When the Portuguese, driven in good part by religious fervor, started their colonial expansion by taking Ceuta in 1415, Tangier was always a primary goal. They failed to capture the city in 1437 but finally occupied it in 1471 (see List of colonial heads of Tangier). The Portuguese rule (including Spanish rule during the Iberian Union, 1580–1640) lasted until 1662, when it was given toCharles II of England as part of the dowry from the Portuguese Infanta Catherine of Braganza, becoming English Tangier. The English gave the city a garrison and a charter which made it equal to English towns. The English planned to improve the harbour by building a mole. With an improved harbour the town would have played the same role that Gibraltar later played in British naval strategy. The mole cost £340,000 and reached 1,436 feet long, before being blown up during the evacuation.

An attempt of Sultan Moulay Ismail of Morocco to seize the town in 1679 was unsuccessful; but a crippling blockade imposed by him ultimately forced the English to withdraw. The English destroyed the town and its port facilities prior to their departure in 1684. Under Moulay Ismail the city was reconstructed to some extent, but it gradually declined until, by 1810, the population was no more than 5,000.

The United States dedicated its first consulate in Tangier during the George Washington administration. In 1821, the Legation Building in Tangier became the first piece of property acquired abroad by the U.S. government—a gift to the U.S. from SultanMoulay Suliman. It was bombarded by the French Prince de Joinville in 1844.

Italian revolutionary hero Giuseppe Garibaldi lived in exile at Tangier in late 1849 and the first half of 1850, following the fall of the revolutionary Roman Republic.

Tangier's geographic location made it a centre for European diplomatic and commercial rivalry in Morocco in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. By the opening of the 20th century, it had a population of about 40,000, including 20,000 Muslims, 10,000 Jews, and 9,000 Europeans (of whom 7,500 were Spanish). The city was increasingly coming under French influence, and it was here in 1905 that Kaiser Wilhelm II triggered an international crisis that almost led to war between his country and France by pronouncing himself in favour of Morocco's continued independence.

In 1912, Morocco was effectively partitioned between France and Spain, the latter occupying the country's far north (called Spanish Morocco) and a part of Moroccan territory in the south, while France declared a protectorate over the remainder. The last Sultan of independent Morocco, Moulay Hafid, was exiled to the Sultanate Palace in the Tangier Kasbah after his forced abdication in favour of his brother Moulay Yusef. Tangier was made an international zone in 1923 under the joint administration of France, Spain, and Britainunder an international convention signed in Paris on December 18, 1923. Ratifications were exchanged in Paris on May 14, 1924. The convention was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on September 13, 1924.  The convention was amended in 1928.  The governments of Italy, Portugal and Belgium adhered to the convention in 1928, and the government of the Netherlands in 1929.

The International zone of Tangier had a 373 square kilometer area and, by 1939, a population of about 60,000 inhabitants.

Spanish troops occupied Tangier on June 14, 1940, the same day Paris fell to the Germans. Despite calls by the writerRafael Sánchez Mazas and other Spanish nationalists to annex "Tánger español", the Franco regime publicly considered the occupation a temporary wartime measure. A diplomatic dispute between Britain and Spain over the latter's abolition of the city's international institutions in November 1940 led to a further guarantee of British rights and a Spanish promise not to fortify the area. The territory was restored to its pre-war status on August 31, 1945. Tangier joined with the rest of Morocco following the restoration of full sovereignty in 1956.

Ecclesiastical history


Originally, the city was part of the larger province of Mauretania Caesariensis, which included much of Northern Africa. Later the area was subdivided, with the eastern part keeping the former name and the newer part receiving the name of Mauretania Tingitana. It is not known exactly at what period there may have been an episcopal see at Tangier in ancient times, but in the Middle Ages Tangier was used as a titular see (i.e., an honorific fiction for the appointment of curial and auxiliary bishops), placing it in Mauretania Tingitana. For the historical reasons given above, one official list of the Roman Curia places the see in Mauretania Caesarea.

Towards the end of the 3rd century, Tangier was the scene of the martyrdom of Saint Marcellus of Tangier, mentioned in theRoman Martyrology on 30 October, and of St. Cassian, mentioned on 3 December.

Under the Portuguese domination, there was a Bishop of Tangier who was a suffragan of Lisbon but in 1570 the diocese was united to the diocese of Ceuta. Six Bishops of Tangier from this period are known, the first, who did not reside in his see, in 1468. During the era of the protectorate over Morocco, Tangier was the residence of the Prefect Apostolic of Morocco, the mission having been founded on November 28, 1630, and entrusted to the Friars Minor. At the time it had a Catholic church, several chapels, schools, and a hospital. The Prefecture Apostolic was raised to the status of a Vicariate Apostolic of Marocco April 14, 1908, and on November 14, 1956, became the Archdiocese of Tangier.

The city also has the Anglican church of Saint Andrew.

Espionage


Tangier has been reputed as a safe house for international spying activities. Its position during the Cold War and other spying periods of the 19th and 20th centuries is legendary.

Tangier acquired the reputation of a spying and smuggling centre and attracted foreign capital due to political neutrality and commercial liberty at that time. It was via a British bank in Tangier that the Bank of England in 1943 for the first time obtained samples of the high-quality forged British currency produced by the Nazis in "Operation Bernhard".

The city has also been a subject for many spy fiction books and films.

Climate

Tangier has a subtropical mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) with heavier rainfall than most parts of North Africa owing to its exposed location. The summers are hot and sunny - ideal for the city’s beaches - and the winters are occasionally wet but very mild: frost is unknown.

Culture


The multicultural placement of Muslim, Christian, and Jewish communities and the foreign immigrants attracted writer and composer Paul Bowles, playwright Tennessee Williams, the beat writers William S. Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac, the painter Brion Gysin and the music group the Rolling Stones, who all lived in or visited Tangier during different periods of the 20th century.

The writer George Orwell and his wife (travelling as Mr. & Mrs. Blair) visited Tangier in September, 1938. Orwell reported newspapers on sale: "La Press Morocain, strongly pro-Franco; Le Petite Morocain, impartial; La Dépêche Morocain, somewhat pro-Franco; Le Journal De Tanger (sic), seemingly non-political; Tangier Gazette & Morocco Mail, an English weekly, slightly antifascist and strongly anti-Japanese." He also noted "There are four post offices, one French, one British, and two Spanish - Franco and government. Stamps are British surcharged Tangier. Coinage as in French Morocco." 

It was after Delacroix that Tangier became an obligatory stop for artists seeking to experience the colors and light he spoke of for themselves—with varying results. Matisse made several sojourns in Tangier, always staying at the Grand Hotel Villa de France. "I have found landscapes in Morocco," he claimed, "exactly as they are described in Delacroix's paintings." The Californian artist Richard Diebenkorn was directly influenced by the haunting colors and rhythmic patterns of Matisse's Morocco paintings.

Antonio Fuentes was born in Tangier in 1905 from a Spanish family. An article in La Gazette du Maroc described Antonio Fuentes as the Picasso of Tangier, and he died in the city 90 years later.

In the 1940s and until 1956 when the city was an International Zone, the city served as a playground for eccentric millionaires, a meeting place for secret agents and all kinds of crooks, and a mecca for speculators and gamblers, an Eldorado for the fun-loving "Haute Volée". During World War II the Office of Strategic Services operated out of Tangier for various operations in North Africa.

Around the same time, a circle of writers emerged which was to have a profound and lasting literary influence. This included Paul Bowles, who lived and wrote for over half a century in the city, Tennessee Williams and Jean Genet as well as Mohamed Choukri (one of North Africa's most controversial and widely read authors), Abdeslam Boulaich,Larbi Layachi, Mohammed Mrabet and Ahmed Yacoubi. Among the best known works from this period is Choukri's For Bread Alone. Originally written in Classical Arabic, the English edition was the result of close collaboration with Bowles (who worked with Choukri to provide the translation and supplied the introduction). Tennessee Williamsdescribed it as "a true document of human desperation, shattering in its impact." Independently, William S. Burroughs lived in Tangier for four years and wrote Naked Lunch, whose locale of Interzone is an allusion to the city.

After several years of gradual disentanglement from Spanish and French colonial control, Morocco reintegrated the city of Tangier at the signing of the Tangier Protocol on October 29, 1956. Tangier remains a very popular tourist destination for cruise ships and day visitors from Spain and Gibraltar.

Economy


Tangier is Morocco's second most important industrial centre after Casablanca. The industrial sectors are diversified: textile,chemical, mechanical, metallurgical and naval. Currently, the city has four industrial parks of which two have the status of free economic zone (see Tangier Free Zone).

Tangier's economy relies heavily on tourism. Seaside resorts have been increasing with projects funded by foreign investments.Real estate and construction companies have been investing heavily in tourist infrastructures. A bay delimiting the city centre extends for more than seven kilometres. The years 2007 and 2008 will be particularly important for the city because of the completion of large construction projects currently being built. These include the Tangier-Mediterranean port ("Tanger-Med") and its industrial parks, a 45,000-seat sports stadium, an expanded business district, and a renovated tourist infrastructure.

Agriculture in the area of Tangier is tertiary and mainly cereal.

The infrastructure of this city of the strait of Gibraltar consists of a port that manages flows of goods and travellers (more than one million travellers per annum) and integrates a marina with a fishing port.

Artisanal trade in the old medina (old city) specializes mainly in leather working, handicrafts made from wood and silver, traditional clothing, and shoes of Moroccan origin.

The city has seen a fast pace of rural exodus from other small cities and villages. The population has quadrupled during the last 25 years (1 million inhabitants in 2007 vs. 250,000 in 1982). This phenomenon has resulted in the appearance of peripheral suburban districts, mainly inhabited by poor people, that often lack sufficient infrastructure.

The city's postcode is 90 000.
 

Transport


A railroad line connects the city with Rabat, Casablanca and Marrakech in the south and Fès and Oujda in the east. The service is operated by ONCF. The Rabat-Tanger expressway connects Tangier to Fès via Rabat (250 km), Settat via Casablanca (330 km) and Tanger-Med port. The Ibn Batouta International Airport (formerly known as Tangier-Boukhalef) is located 15 km south-west of the city centre.

The new Tanger-Med Port is managed by the Danish firm A. P. Moller-Maersk Group and will free up the old port for tourist and recreational development.

Tangier's Ibn Batouta International Airport and the rail tunnel will serve as the gateway to the "Moroccan Riviera" the coast between Tangier and Oujda. Traditionally the north coast was an impoverished and underdeveloped region of Morocco but it has some of the best beaches on the Mediterranean and is likely to see rapid development.

The Ibn Batouta International Airport has been being expanded and modernized to accommodate more flights. The biggest airline at the airport isRoyal Air Maroc. In addition, a TGV high-speed train system is being built. It will take a few years to complete, and will become the fastest train system in North Africa.

Language

Most of the inhabitants of Tangier speak Darija, a variety of Moroccan Arabic. About 25% of the city inhabitants speak Tarifit Berber in their daily lives. Written Arabic is used in government documentation and on road signs together with French. French is used in universities and large businesses. English and Spanish are well understood in all hotels and tourist areas.

Education

Tangier offers four different types of educational systems: Arabic, French, Spanish and English. Each of these systems offer classes starting from Pre-Kindergarten up to the 12th grade, Baccalaureat, or High school diploma.

Many universities are located both inside and outside the city. Universities like the "Institut Superieur International de Tourisme" (ISIT), which is a school that offers diplomas in various departments, offer courses ranging from business administration to hotel management. The institute is among one of the most prestigious tourism schools in the country. Other colleges such as the "Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion"  is among the biggest business schools in the country as well as "Ecole Nationale des Sciences appliquées" , a rising engineering school for applied sciences.

Primary education

There are more than a hundred Moroccan primary schools, dispersed across the city.


Morocco to Jewish Travelers:

  1. CHABAD  חב"ד
  2. CONTACT INFO יצירת קשר
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  4. HOSPITALITY & KOSHER ACCOMMODATIONS אירוח כשר
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  6. JEWISH AGADIR יהדות אגדיר
  7. JEWISH CASABLANCA יהדות קזבלנקה
  8. JEWISH CEMETERIES בתי קברות יהודיים
  9. JEWISH HISTORY הסטוריה יהודית
  10. JEWISH MOROCCO יהדות מרוקו
  11. KASHRUT AUTHORITIES ארגוני כשרות
  12. KOSHER PRODUCTS LIST  רשימת מוצרים כשרים
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  14. MAP OF MOROCCO מפת מרוקו
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