Flag of Algeria

 
   
     ALGERIA  
 
MAP OF ALGERIA:

Map of Algeria

 
SYNAGOGUES & JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS IN ALGERIA:

Updated information from Andy Grossman, andygrx@gmail.com on October 15, 2014:
Maître Roger Said, dean of the Jewish community, died in August 2012.

It's unlikely he will be replaced. There aren't 200-300 Jews left in Algeria; at most a few dozen. Perhaps not even that today. These would be, as Roger told me some years ago, stateless Jews, probably of Moroccan parentage, who did not benefit from the Crémieux Decree of 1870; most were uneducated and spoke only Arabic.The Algiers Synagogue has been without a rabbi for decades, the local Jews recited the Hebrew liturgy from memory when I was there in the 1980s. (Wikipedia repeats this information, but I heard it from Roger.)

As Wikipedia says, virtually all those Jews with French nationality left Algeria in the 1960s or at latest 1970s for France or Israel. A handful went to the USA.

Barbara Schell, a friend, who was American consul in Oran, knew no Jews there. (She was later to die tragically in a friendly-fire incident in Iraq.)

Synagogue and Jewish Community Office in Algiers
Association Consistoriale Israelite d'Alger,
6 rue Hassena Ahmed, Algiers (formerly rue de Suffren).
Tel: (213) 262 85 72.

Federation des Communautes Israelites d'Alger
6 rue Hassena Ahmed (formerly rue de Suffren).
Tel: (213) 262-85-72.

The Jewish Community of Blida
Consistoire d'Algerie, 29 rue des Martyrs, Blida
President:
Tel:

 
JEWISH CEMETERIES
 
ALGERIA JEWISH LINKS:
 
BACKGROUND    Algeria
 
After a century of rule by France, and in the wake of 1948 elections rigged by French colonists to reverse the sweeping victory of a Muslim political party in 1947, Algerians fought through the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algeria's primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), has dominated politics ever since. Many Algerians in the subsequent generation were not satisified, however, and moved to counter the FLN's centrality in Algerian politics. The surprising first round success of the fundamentalist Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991 balloting spurred the army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent an extremist-led government from assuming power. The Algerian army began a crack down on the FIS that resulted in a continuous low-grade civil conflict between Islamic activists and the secular state apparatus. The government later allowed elections featuring pro-government and moderate religiously-based parties, but did not appease the activists who progressively widened their attacks. Operations by the activists and the army resulted in nearly 100,000 deaths during the decade-long conflict. The government gained the upper hand by the mid-1990s and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000. Many armed militants of other groups surrendered under an amnesty program designed to promote national reconciliation, but small numbers of armed militants persist in confronting government forces and conducting ambushes and occasional attacks on villages. Issues facing the winner of the April 2004 presidential election include Berber unrest, large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing, the presence of a group in the southern regions of the country that kidnapped European tourists in 2003, as well as the need to diversify Algeria's petroleum-based economy. Algeria assumed a two-year seat on the UN Security Council in January 2004.
   GEOGRAPHY    Algeria
Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
Geographic coordinates:
 28 00 N, 3 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 2,381,740 sq km
land: 2,381,740 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
 Slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
 total: 6,343 km
border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km
Coastline:
 998 km
Maritime claims:
 territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
Climate:
 arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Terrain:
mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Elevation extremes:
 lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
highest point: Tahat 3,003 m
Natural resources:
 petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Land use:
 arable land: 3.22%
permanent crops: 0.25%
other: 96.53% (2001)
Irrigated land:
 5,600 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
 mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season
Environment - current issues:
 soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements:
 party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
 
second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)
   PEOPLE    Algeria
Population:
  32,129,324 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
 0-14 years: 29.9% (male 4,893,971; female 4,705,933)
15-64 years: 65.5% (male 10,593,840; female 10,443,300)
65 years and over: 4.6% (male 703,420; female 788,860) (2004 est.)
Median age:
 total: 23.8 years
male: 23.7 years
female: 24 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
 1.28% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
  17.76 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
  4.61 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
 -0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
 at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  total: 32.16 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 36.06 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.74 years
male: 71.22 years
female: 74.34 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  2.04 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA
Nationality:
 noun: Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian
Ethnic groups:
 Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
note: almost all Algerians are Berber in origin, not Arab; the minority who identify themselves as Berber live mostly in the mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algeirs; the Berbers are also Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language in schools
Religions:
Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%
Languages:
 Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Literacy:
 definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70%
male: 78.8%
female: 61% (2003 est.)
   GOVERNMENT    Algeria
Country name:
 conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah
local short form: Al Jaza'ir
Government type:
 republic
Capital:
 Algiers
Administrative divisions:
 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Independence:
 5 July 1962 (from France)
National holiday:
 Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)
Constitution:
 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996
Legal system:
 socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
 chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 9 May 2003)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 8 April 2004 (next to be held NA April 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for second term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 85%, Ali Benflis 6.4%, Abdallah Djaballah 5%
Legislative branch:
 bicameral Parliament consists of the National People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389 seats - changed from 380 seats in the 2002 elections; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Council of Nations (Senate) (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; members serve six-year terms; the constitution requires half the council to be renewed every three years)
elections: National People's Assembly - last held 30 May 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); Council of Nations (Senate) - last held 30 December 2003 (next to be held NA 2009)
election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 199, RND 48, Islah 43, MSP 38, PT 21, FNA 8, EnNahda 1, PRA 1, MEN 1, independents 29; Council of Nations - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party NA
Judicial branch:
 Supreme Court or Court Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
 Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; Democratic National Rally or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA, chairman]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ and Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR (self-exiled in Germany)]; Society of Peace Movement or MSP [Boujerra SOLTANI]; National Entente Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Ali BENFLIS, secretary general]; National Reform Movement or Islah (formerly MRN) [Abdellah DJABALLAH]; National Renewal Party or PRA [Yacine TERKMANE]; Progressive Republican Party [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SAADI, secretary general]; Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Fatah RABEI]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general (self-exiled in Switzerland)]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUN]
note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997
Political pressure groups and leaders:
 NA
International organization participation:
 ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BIS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAS, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Idriss JAZAIRY
chancery: 2137 Wyoming Ave NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174
Diplomatic representation from the US:
 chief of mission: Ambassador Richard W. ERDMAN (as of 10 July 2003)
embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers
telephone: [213] (21) 691-425/255/186
FAX: [213] (21) 69-39-79
Flag description:
 two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)
   ECONOMY    Algeria
Economy - overview:
 The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the seventh-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second-largest gas exporter; it ranks 14th in oil reserves. Economic policy reforms supported by the IMF and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club in the past decade have helped improve Algeria's financial and macroeconomic indicators. Because of sustained high oil prices in the past three years, Algeria's finances have further benefited from substantial trade surpluses and record foreign exchange reserves. Real GDP has risen due to higher oil output and increased government spending. The government's continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector, however, has had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards. Structural reform within the economy moves ahead slowly.
GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $196 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
  7.4% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $6,000 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
 agriculture: 10.2%
industry: 56.5%
services: 33.4% (2003)
Investment (gross fixed):
  24.8% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
 23% (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
 lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
 35.3 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.5% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
  9.6 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
 agriculture 14%, industry 13.4%, construction and public works 10%, trade 14.6%, government 32%, other 16% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate:
  26.2% (2003 est.)
Budget:
 revenues: $25.49 billion
expenditures: $22.87 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.8 billion (2003 est.)
Public debt:
  41.5% of GDP (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products:
 wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle
Industries:
 petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
  6% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
  24.69 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
  22.9 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
 340 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
 275 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
  1.52 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
  209,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
  13.1 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
  80.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
  22.32 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
  57.98 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
  4.739 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
  $7.836 billion (2003)
Exports:
  $24.96 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
 petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%
Exports - partners:
 Italy 19.7%, US 18.7%, France 13.8%, Spain 11.3%, Canada 6.9%, Belgium 5.1%, Turkey 4.4%, Brazil 4.3% (2003 est.)
Imports:
  $12.42 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
 capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partners:
 France 32.1%, Italy 9.9%, Spain 6.3%, Germany 5.7%, China 4.8% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
  $33.42 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
  
$22.71 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
 $182 million (2001 est.)
Currency:
 Algerian dinar (DZD)
Currency code:
 DZD
Exchange rates:
 Algerian dinars per US dollar - 77.395 (2003), 79.6819 (2002), 77.215 (2001), 75.2598 (2000), 66.5739 (1999)
Fiscal year:
 calendar year
   COMMUNICATIONS    Algeria
Telephones - main lines in use:
  2,199,600 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,447,310 (2003)
Telephone system:
 general assessment: telephone density in Algeria is very low, not exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main lines increased in the last few years to a little more than 2,000,000, but only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much of the infrastructure is outdated and inefficient
domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned)
international: country code - 213; 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat (1998)
Radio broadcast stations:
 AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
 46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
 .dz
Internet hosts:
  897 (2004)
Internet users:
  
500,000 (2002)
   TRANSPORTATION    Algeria
Railways:
  total: 3,973 km
standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.435-m gauge (283 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
  total: 104,000 km
paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km of expressways)
unpaved: 32,344 km (1999)
Pipelines:
 condensate 1,344 km; gas 87,347 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,213 km; oil 6,496 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
 Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes
Merchant marine:
 total: 59 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 837,676 GRT/929,847 DWT
by type: bulk 9, cargo 16, chemical tanker 6, liquefied gas 10, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea/passenger 4, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: United Kingdom 4
registered in other countries: 4 (2003 est.)
Airports:
 137 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
 total: 53
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
 total: 84
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 38
under 914 m: 19 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
 1 (2003 est.)
   MILITARY     Algeria
Military branches:
 People's National Army (ANP; includes Ground Forces), Algerian National Navy (ANN), Air Force (QJA), Territorial Air Defense
Military manpower - military age:
 19 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
 males age 15-49: 9,311,747 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
 males age 15-49: 5,675,739 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
 males: 373,235 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $2,196.6 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.5% (2003)
   TRANSNATIONAL ISSUES    Algeria
Disputes - international:
 Libya claims about 32,000 sq km in a dormant dispute still reflected on its maps in southeastern Algeria; Algeria remains concerned about armed bandits operating throughout the Sahel who destabilize southern Algerian towns; border with Morocco remains closed over mutual claims of harboring militants, arms smuggling; Algeria supports the exiled Sahrawi Polisario Front and rejects Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; Algerian FLN asserts claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco
REPORTS ON HUMAN RIGHTS PRACTICES BY THE U.S DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

Algeria

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